Hello dear friends, in this lesson, we will explain in detail the subject of German Noun Cases, which is one of the subjects you will need the most while learning German. It may be a little difficult when you first learn it, but with regular repetition and practice, you can learn this subject completely and use it easily in your daily life, let’s get started.
There are four cases of conjugation of nouns in German.
Which of the above situations a noun word will turn into or will not turn into and will be used normally depends entirely on the way it is used in the sentence to be formed.
In addition, we can understand that a noun word transforms into one of the above states by looking at its article (der, die, das).
You can find the German noun cases as a table below.
If a noun is simple, it is either the subject of the sentence or it is included in a sentence formed with verbs that require a simple form such as “werden (to be), sein (to be), bleiben (to stay), gelten als (to be counted, to be accepted)”.
-The subject of a sentence is found in the nominative form.
“Wer? (who?)” is asked, “was? (What?)”
Example: Der Gast öffnet die Tür. Das Restaurant ist vol.
Just like in Turkish, when we use a noun word in a sentence in German, that word can turn into “-i”. In this case, only the article “der” takes the form of “den”, while the other articles do not change.
In German, “Akkusativ” serves as an object in the sentence, the attribution to find entities and objects “Wohin= who, what?” , and to people “Wen? (who?)” is asked.
Ich habe den Mann gesehen.(I saw the man.)
Who did you see ? Answer: man
Ich öffnete die Tür. (I opened the door.)
What did you open? Answer: the door
Dativ is used in the sentence if the elephants are declaring the situation. Dativ plays the role of indirect object in the sentence and the predicate asks the questions “Wo=where”, “Wem=who”, Woher = where”.
In the dative state, all articles change. While “der” and “das” become “dem”, “singular die” takes the form of “der”, “plural die” takes the form of “den” and the suffix “n” comes to the end of the noun.
Ich bin in dem Haus eingesperrt. (I’m locked in the house.)
Where? Answer: at home
Ich habe dem Frau Geld gelehen. (I lent her money.)
To who? Answer: To the woman
The case of a noun word “-of, -n” is defined as genitiv.
The conversion is as follows;
|der||die Kinder des Mannes||Man’s children|
|die||die Kinder der Frau||Woman’s children|
|das||die Bücher des Kindes||Child’s books|
|plural||die Kinder der Frauen||Woman’s children|
You can see the “genitive” conjugations of the articles in the adjacent table. “der” and “das” –> “des” and “s” or “es” comes to the name. It says “die” and plural “die”, but the name doesn’t have any suffixes. You can see it in the examples above.
Another point you should pay attention to when using Genitive is;
When we say “man’s car” in Turkish, we start the sentence with “man’s car” in German. That is, the sentence declaring genitiv comes after the object.
-Die Frau meines Bruders ist Ärztin.
My brother’s wife is a doctor.
-Weisst du die Adresse des Hotel?
Do you know the address of the hotel?
-Die Bücher sind meines Vaters
These books are my father’s.
Note: Don’t be confused by this issue because it is actually not difficult to learn and distinguish. It will be easier for you to learn which verbs and which prepositions require dativ and akkusativ instead of memorizing articles one by one. You can find this topic on other pages as well.